ESL, Niveau avancé

Origin of Surfing

Surfboard ......... who constantly look for the biggest waves, would be surprised to learn that the origins of surfing go back centuries, long before the construction of expensive boards.
Polynesians, who had arrived in Hawaii in the 4th century, developed the art of riding on bellyboards, called paipo. For them, surfing was more than a sporting .........; it was also a spiritual communion.
Similar to current standards, surfboards became ......... symbols. The rich rode the waves on superior boards, up to 6 feet long, made from the finest wood. The poor carved their boards from banana palm wood.
Surfing was controlled by a strict ......... law. Some beaches could only be used by high-ranking officials.
When the English explorer, Captain James Cook arrived in Kealakekua Bay in 1778, he was greeted by ......... surfers who thought he was the mythological god, Lono.
With the arrival of Christian missionaries to the island, surfing as a religious ritual ended. They wrote ......... of how villagers left their daily chores undone when the surf was up.
Despite the missionary's ........., surfing continued to gain in popularity. In 1905 group of Hawaiian teenagers formed "The Club of the Waves" to continue interest in the spiritual and cultural study of surfing.
Men and women rode surfboards together as part of a courtship ritual. As very little clothing was worn during surfing, many European settlers regarded the activity as shocking ..........
The "Big One" all surfers dream about, occurred during the summerof 1932. Olympic swimmer Duke Kahanamoku, who rode a swell of 30 foot waves for more than a mile, stated, "I rode the board down that ......... slope like tobogganing down a glacier."
Since then, international schools and competitions have continued to grow. Movies havepopularized the thrill of riding the waves. It is not even necessary for the oceans to provide them, man-made wave machines have been installed on ships and in theme parks to ......... surfing enjoyment.