ESL, Niveau avancé

Ancient Plastic Surgery

Although most people think of plastic or cosmetic surgery as a recent phenomenon, in fact, it has been a miraculous medical ......... for centuries.
Even the name "plastic" surgery has an ancient origin, derived from the Greek word, plastikos which means "to be formed or molded." It has to do with ......... deformations.
Another name for this medical feat is ......... surgery. It was a relatively unknown procedure in the West until an account of a grafting operation was published in London in 1794.
A British officer stationed in India happened to meet a man with a scarred forehead and ......... nose. The man's nose had been cut off as a punishment, and then a new one had been created using the man's own skin.
The medical community was startled to read a copy of an ancient Egyptian manuscript containing advice on how to repair broken noses and directions on treating ......... wounds.
Even more surprising was the discovery that the world's first medical school was established in 1500 BC in Pakistan. Previously, the Hindu author Sushruta wrote about surgical methods, including nose surgery and ..........
Amputation of the nose was quite common in India which was the ......... punishment for certain crimes. As a result, there was a large demand for plastic surgery.
Reconstruction of the nasal passage could also be accomplished. This ......... successful operation became known as the "Indian Method."
Plastic surgery techniques did not really gain an acceptance in the West until the 18th century. Even then, there was a real reluctanace to do little more than to ......... wounds.
Doctors also became skilled at preventing pain to their patients with various forms of ......... Some of these pain-blockers included the drinking of large quantities of wine, breathing carbon dioxide or taking a potion with opium.